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2014年公共英语等级(PETS5)提分模考(1)

资格证之王发布于 2016-07-20 10:44
(6.0)分
  • 试卷时长
    140 分钟
  • 题目数
    7 道题
  • 试卷总分
    75
  • 已售
    1
  • 答题中和交卷后均可查看答案
    无重答限制
积分 20.0 / 份 买试卷

试卷描述

外语类->公共英语

试卷结构

Section II Use of English (15 minutes)
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1
20
Section III Reading Comprehension (50 minutes) 其中,第66-70题,每题2分。
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未指定技能
组合题
5
30
Section Ⅳ Writing (40 minutes)
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问答题
1
25
第一部分:Section II Use of English (15 minutes) (共1道题) 展开全部
1 [ 组合题 ] (20.0分) 未指定技能
回答各题:
The most obvious purpose of advertising is toinform the consumer of available products or services. The second(31)__________is to sell the product. The second purpose might be more important to themanufacturers than the(32) __________The manufacturers go beyond only tellingconsumers about their products. They also try to per-suade customers to buy the(33) __________by creating a desire (34) __________it. Because ofadvertisement, con-sumers think that they want something that they do not need.After buying something, the purchaser cannot alwaysexplain why it was (35) __________Even (36) __________the purchaser probably does not know why he or she boughtsomething, the manufacturers(37) __________. Manufacturers have analyzed thebusiness of (38) __________ and buying. They know all the differ-ent motivesthat influence a consumer' s purchase--some rational and (39) __________emotional. Furthermore, they take advantage of this (40) __________
Why (41) __________ so many products displayedat the checkout counters in grocery stores? The store manage-ment has some good(42) __________. By the time the customer is (43) __________to pay for a purchase,he or shehas already made rational, thought-out decisions (44) __________ whathe or she needs and wants to buy. The(45) __________ __ feels that he or shehas done a good job of choosing the items. The shopper is especiallyvulnerableat this point. The (46) __________ of candy, chewing gum, andmagazines are very attractive. They persuade thepurchaser to buy something foremotional, not (47) __________motives. For example, the customer neither needsnorplans to buy candy, but while the customer is standing, waiting to paymoney, he or she may suddenly decide to buy(48) __________This is exactly (49) __________thestore and the manufacturer hope that the customer will(50) __________. Thecustomer follows his or her plan.
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第二部分:Section III Reading Comprehension (50 minutes) 其中,第66-70题,每题2分。 (共5道题) 展开全部
1 [ 组合题 ] (5.0分) 未指定技能
回答各题:
Text 1
Today TV audiences all over the world are accustomed to the sight of American astronauts in tip-top condition, with fair hair, crew-cuts, good teeth, an uncomplicated sense of humour and a severely limited non-technical vocabulary.
What marks out an astronaut from his earthbound fellow human beings is something of a difficult problem.Should you wish to interview him, you must apply beforehand, and you must be prepared for a longish wait, even ifyour application meets with success. It is, in any case, out of the question to interview an astronaut about his familylife or personal activities, Because all the astronauts have contracts with an American magazine under conditions for-bidding any unauthorized disclosures about their private lives.
Certain obvious qualities are needed. Anyone who would be a spaceman must be in perfect health, must havepowers of concentration( since work inside a spacecraft is exceptionally demanding)and must have considerable cour-age. Again, space-work calls for dedication. Courage and dedication are particularly essential. In the well-knowncase of the Challenger seven crew members lost their lives in space because of the faulty equipment in the shuttle.Another must be outstanding scientific expertise. It goes without saying that they all have to have professional aero-nautical qualifications and experience.
A striking feature of the astronauts is their ages. For the younger man, in his twenties, say, space is out. Onlyone of the fifty men working for NASA in 1970 was under 30. The oldest astronaut to date is Alan Shepard,America's first man in space, who, at nearly fifty, was also the man who captained Apollo 13. The average age isthe late thirties. The crew members of Apollo 11 were all born well before the Second World War. In 1986 the Chal-lenger astronauts had an average age of 39. The range was from 35 to 46.
In a society where marital continuity is not always exhibited, the astronauts' record in this respect hits you in theeye. Of all the married men in NASA group, only two or three are divorced from their wives. Mind you, it is hardto tell whether something in the basic character of an astronaut encourages fidelity or whether the selection processdemands that a candidate should be happily married.
The NASA astronauts live in unattractive small communities dotted here and there around the base in Texas.You would expect them to f'md their friends from among their professional associates, But this is not the case. Rath-er, they prefer to make friends with the normal folk in their districts. Astronauts, like everybody else, must get fedup with talking shop all the time, and whereas they are indeed an elite, their daily life outside work should be as nor-mal as possible, if only for the sake of their families.
As for the astronauts' political leanings, they seem to be towards the right. This may be due to the fact that a large proportion of the astronauts have a military background. On the other hand, it could be just coincidence.
1 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
Details of the private life of an astronaut are hard to come by, Because they are __________
  • A
    his own business and privacy
  • B
    secrets as far as interviews are concerned
  • C
    the property of an American magazine
  • D
    the first-rate national confidential information
2 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
To audience, the typical American astronaut __________
  • A
    has a limited vocabulary
  • B
    is  a clean-cut, cheerful and frank guy
  • C
    can't understand a sophisticated joke
  • D
    is  well-built but rather slow-witted
3 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
In politics, astronauts are generally__________
  • A
    democrats
  • B
    republicans
  • C
    conservatives
  • D
    communists
4 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
The phrase" talking shop" ( Line 4, Para. 6 ) probably means __________
  • A
    talking about shopping
  • B
    discussing one's work with colleagues
  • C
    exchanging personal news
  • D
    talking with friends in a group
5 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
Which of the statements is NOT true?
  • A
    Astronauts have a good job which demands high.
  • B
    The divorce rate in NASA is very low.
  • C
    The NASA astronauts mostly find friends from among their work.
  • D
    There is no younger man in his twenties in the spaceship.
2 [ 组合题 ] (5.0分) 未指定技能
回答各题:
Text 2
Defenders of special protective labor legislation for women often maintain that eliminating such laws would de-stroy the fruits of a century-long struggle for the protection of women workers. Even a brief examination of the his-toric practice of courts and employers would show that the fruit of such laws has been bitter; they are, in practice,more of a curse than a blessing.
Sex-defined protective laws have often been based on stereotypical assumptions concerning women' s needs andabilities, and employers have frequently used them as legal excuses for discriminating against women. After the Sec-ond World War, for example, businesses and government sought to persuade women to vacate jobs in factories, thusmaking room in the labor force for returning veterans. The revival or passage of state laws limiting the daily orweekly work hours of women conveuiently accomplished this. Employers had only to declare that overtime hourswere a necessary condition of employment or promotion in their factory, and women could be quite legally fired,refused jobs, or kept at low wage levels, all in the name of "protecting" their health. By validating such laws whenthey are challenged by lawsuits, the courts have colluded over the years in establishing different, less advantageousemployment terms for women than for men, thus reducing women"s competitiveness on the job market. At the sametime, even the most well-intentioned lawmakers, courts, and employers have often been blind to the real needs ofwomen. The lawmakers and the courts continue to permit employers to offer employee health insurance plans thatcover all known human medical disabilities except those relating to pregnancy and Childbirth.
Finally, labor laws protecting only special groups are often ineffective at protecting the workers who are actuallyin the workplace. Some chemicals, for example, pose reproductive risks for women of childbearing years; manufac-turers using the chemicals comply with laws protecting women against these hazards by refusing to hire them. Thus the sex-defined legislation protects the hypothetical female worker, but has no effect whatever on the safety of anyactual employee. The health risks to male employees in such industries cannot be negligible, since chemicals toxic e-nough to cause birth defects in fetuses or sterility in women are presumably harmful to the human metabolism. Pro-tectiv~ laws aimed at changing production materials or techniques in order to reduce such hazards would benefit allemployees without discriminating against any.
In sum, protective labor laws for women are discriminatory.and do not meet their intended purpose. Legislatorsshould recognize that women are in the work force to stay, and that their needs--good health care, a decent wage,and a safe workplace--are the needs of all workers. Laws that ignore these facts violate women's rights for equalprotection in employment.
1 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
According to the author, which of the following resulted from the passage or revival of state laws limiting the work hours of women workers?
  • A
    Women  workers were compelled to leave their jobs in factories.
  • B
    Many employers had difficulty in providing jobs for returning veterans.
  • C
    Many employers found it hard to attract women workers.
  • D
    The health of most women factory workers improved.
2 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
According to the first paragraph of the passage, the author considers which of the following to be most help-ful in determining the value of special .protective labor legislation for women?
  • A
    A  comparative study of patterns of work-related illnesses in states that had such  laws and in states that did not.
  • B
    An  estimate of how many women workers are in favor of such laws.
  • C
    An  analysis of the cost to employers of complying with such laws.
  • D
    An  examination of the actual effects that such laws have had in the past on women  workers.
3 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
The main point of the passage is that special protective labor laws for women workers are__________
  • A
    unnecessary because most workers are well protected by existing labor laws
  • B
    harmful to the economic interests of women workers while offering them little  or no actual protection
  • C
    not worth preserving even though they do represent a hardwon legacy of the  labor movement
  • D
    controversial because male workers receive less protection than they require
4 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
The author implies that which of the following is characteristic of many employee health insurance plans?
  • A
    They cover all the common medical conditions affecting men, but only some of  those affecting women.
  • B
    They lack the special provisions for women workers that proposed special labor  laws for women would provide.
  • C
    They pay the medical costs associated with pregnancy and childbirth only for  the spouses of male em-ployees, not for female employees.
  • D
    They meet minimum legal requirements, but do not adeqately safeguard the health  of either male or female employees.
5 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
According to the passage, special labor laws protecting women workers tend generally to have which of the following effects?
  • A
    They tend to modify the stereotypes employees often hold concerning women.
  • B
    They increase the advantage to employers of hiring men instead of women, making  it less likely that women will be hired.
  • C
    They decrease the likelihood that employers will offer more protection to women  workers than that which is absolutely required by law.
  • D
    They increase the tendency of employers to deny health insurance and disability  plans to women workers.
3 [ 组合题 ] (5.0分) 未指定技能
回答各题:
Text 3
Before a big exam, a sound night's sleep will do you better than poring over textbooks. That, at least, is thefolk wisdom. And science, in the form of behavioral psychology, supports that wisdom. But such behavioral studiescannot distinguish between two competing theories of why sleep is good for the memory. One says that sleep is whenpermanent memories form. The other says that they are actually formed during the day, but then "edited" at night,to flush away what is superfluous.
To tell the difference, it is necessary to look into the brain of a sleeping person, and that is hard. But after adecade of painstaking work, a team led by Pierre Maquet at Liege University in Belgium has managed to do it. Theparticular stage of sleep in which the Belgian group is interested is rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, when brainand body are active, heart rate and blood pressure increase, the eyes move back and forth behind the eyelids as i!watching a movie, and brainwave traces resemble those of wakefulness. It is during this period of sleep that peopleare most likely to relive events of the previous day in dreams.
Dr. Maquet used an electronic device called PET to study the brains of people as they practiced a task duringthe day, and as they slept during the following night. The task required them to press a button as fast as possible, inresponse to a light coming on in one of six positions. As they learnt how to do this, their response times got faster.What they did not know was that the appearance of the lights sometimes followed a pattern--what is referred to as"artificial grammar". Yet the reductions in response time showed that they learnt faster when the pattern was presen!than when there was not.
What is more, those with more to learn ( i. e. the "grammar", as well as the mechanical task of pushing thebutton) have more active brains. The "editing" theory would not predict that, since the number of irrelevant stimuliwould be the same in each case. And to eliminate any doubts that the experimental subjects were learning as opposedto unlearning, their response times when they woke up were even quicker than when they went to sleep.
The team, therefore, concluded that the nerve connections involved in memory are reinforced through reactiva-tion during REM sleep, particularly if the brain detects an inherent structure in the material being learnt. So now, onthe eve of that crucial test, maths students can sleep soundly in the knowledge that what they will remember the nextday are the basic rules of algebra and not the incoherent talk from the radio next door.
1 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
Researchers in behavioral psychology are divided with regard to__________
  • A
    how dreams are modified in their courses
  • B
    the difference between sleep and wakefulness
  • C
    why  sleep is of great benefit to memory
  • D
    the functions of a good night' s sleep
2 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
As manifested in the experimental study, rapid eye movement is characterized by__________
  • A
    intensely active bralnwave traces
  • B
    subjects' quicker response times
  • C
    complicated memory patterns
  • D
    revival of events in the previous day
3 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
By referring to the artificial grammar, the author intends to show__________
  • A
    its significance in the study
  • B
    an  inherent pattern being learnt
  • C
    its resemblance to the lights
  • D
    the importance of a night' s sleep
4 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
tn their study, researchers led by Pierre Maquet took advantage of the technique of__________
  • A
    exposing a long-held folk wisdom
  • B
    clarifying the predictions on dreams
  • C
    making contrasts and comparisons
  • D
    correlating effects with their causes
5 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
What advice might Maquet give to those who have a crucial test the next day?
  • A
    Memorizing grammar with great efforts.
  • B
    Study textbooks with close attention.
  • C
    Have their brain images recorded.
  • D
    Enjoy their sleep at night soundly.
4 [ 组合题 ] (5.0分) 未指定技能
回答各题:
Periodically in history, there come periods of great transition in which work changes its meaning. There was atime, perhaps 10,000 years ago, when human beings stopped feeding themselves by hunting game and gatheringplants, and increasingly turned to agriculture. In a way, that represented the invention of "work".
Then, in the latter decades of the 18th century, as the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, there wasanother transition in which the symbols of work were no longer the hoe and the plow; they were replaced by the milland the assembly line.
66._______________
With the Industrial Revolution, machinery--powered first by steam, then by electricity and internal combustion engines--took over the hard physical tasks and relieved the strain on human and animal muscles.
67._______________
And yet, such jobs have been characteristic of the human condition in the first three-quarters of the 20th centu-ry. They' ve made too little demand on the human mind and spirit to keep them fresh and alive, made too much de-mand for any machine to serve the purpose until now.
The electronic computer, invented in the 1940' s and improved at breakneck speed, was a machine that, for thefirst time, seemed capable of doing work that had until then been the preserve of the human mind. With the coming ofthe microchip in the 1970' s, computers became compact enough, versatile enough and (most important of all) cheapenough to serve as the brains of affordable machines that could take their place on the assembly line and in the office.
68._______________
First, what will happen to the human beings who have been working at these disappearing jobs?
Second, where will we get the human beings that will do the new jobs that will appear--jobs that are deman-ding, interesting and mind-exercising, but that requires a high-tech level of thought and education?
69._______________
The first problem, that of technological unemployment, will be temporary, for it will arise out of the fact thatthere is now a generation of employees who have not been educated to fit the computer age. However, (in advancednations, at least) they will be the last generation to be so lacking, so that with them this problem will disappear or,at least, diminish to the point of non-crisis proportions.
The second problem--that of developing a large enough number of high-tech minds to run a high-tech world-will be no problem at all, once we adjust our thinking.
70._______________
Right now, creativity seems to be confined to a very few, and it is easy to suppose that that is the way it must be.
However, with the proper availability of computerized education, humanity will surprise the elite few once again.
1 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
_______________
  • A
    There remained, however, the  "easier" labor--the labor that required the human eyes, ears,  judgment andmind but no sweating. It nevertheless had its miseries, for it  tended to be dull, repetitious, and boring.And there is always the sour sense  of endlessly doing something unpleasant under compulsion.
  • B
    For one thing, much of human effort that is  today put into "running the world" will be unnecessary.  Withcomputers, robots and automation, a great dead of the daily grind will  appear to be running itself. This isnothing startling. It is a trend that has  been rapidly on its way ever since World War]I.
  • C
    And now we stand at the brink of a change  that will be the greatest of all, for work in its old sense will dis-appear  altogether. To most people, work has always been an effortful exercising of  mind or body--com-pelled by the bitter necessity of earning the necessities of  life--plus an occasional period of leisure in whichto rest or have fun.
  • D
    Clearly there will be a painful period of  transition, one that is starting already, and one that will be in full swing as  the 21st century begins.
  • E
    In the first place, the computer age will  introduce a total revolution in our notions of education, and is begin-ning to  do so now. The coming of the computer will make learning fun, and a  successfully stimulated mindwill learn quickly. It will undoubtedly turn out  that the "average" child is much more intelligent and creativethan we  generally suppose. There was a time, after all, when the ability to read and  write was confined to avery small group of "scholars" and almost all  of them would have scouted the notion that just about anyonecould learn the  intricacies of literacy. Yet with mass education general literacy came to be a  fact.
  • F
    This means that the dull, the boring, the  repetitious, the mind-stultifying work will begin to disappear fromthe job  market--is already beginning to disappear. This, of course, will introduce two  vital sets of prob-lem-is already introducing them.
2 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
_______________
  • A
    There remained, however, the  "easier" labor--the labor that required the human eyes, ears,  judgment andmind but no sweating. It nevertheless had its miseries, for it  tended to be dull, repetitious, and boring.And there is always the sour sense  of endlessly doing something unpleasant under compulsion.
  • B
    For one thing, much of human effort that is  today put into "running the world" will be unnecessary.  Withcomputers, robots and automation, a great dead of the daily grind will  appear to be running itself. This isnothing startling. It is a trend that has  been rapidly on its way ever since World War]I.
  • C
    And now we stand at the brink of a change  that will be the greatest of all, for work in its old sense will dis-appear  altogether. To most people, work has always been an effortful exercising of  mind or body--com-pelled by the bitter necessity of earning the necessities of  life--plus an occasional period of leisure in whichto rest or have fun.
  • D
    Clearly there will be a painful period of  transition, one that is starting already, and one that will be in full swing as  the 21st century begins.
  • E
    In the first place, the computer age will  introduce a total revolution in our notions of education, and is begin-ning to  do so now. The coming of the computer will make learning fun, and a  successfully stimulated mindwill learn quickly. It will undoubtedly turn out  that the "average" child is much more intelligent and creativethan we  generally suppose. There was a time, after all, when the ability to read and  write was confined to avery small group of "scholars" and almost all  of them would have scouted the notion that just about anyonecould learn the  intricacies of literacy. Yet with mass education general literacy came to be a  fact.
  • F
    This means that the dull, the boring, the  repetitious, the mind-stultifying work will begin to disappear fromthe job  market--is already beginning to disappear. This, of course, will introduce two  vital sets of prob-lem-is already introducing them.
3 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
_______________
  • A
    There remained, however, the  "easier" labor--the labor that required the human eyes, ears,  judgment andmind but no sweating. It nevertheless had its miseries, for it  tended to be dull, repetitious, and boring.And there is always the sour sense  of endlessly doing something unpleasant under compulsion.
  • B
    For one thing, much of human effort that is  today put into "running the world" will be unnecessary.  Withcomputers, robots and automation, a great dead of the daily grind will  appear to be running itself. This isnothing startling. It is a trend that has  been rapidly on its way ever since World War]I.
  • C
    And now we stand at the brink of a change  that will be the greatest of all, for work in its old sense will dis-appear  altogether. To most people, work has always been an effortful exercising of  mind or body--com-pelled by the bitter necessity of earning the necessities of  life--plus an occasional period of leisure in whichto rest or have fun.
  • D
    Clearly there will be a painful period of  transition, one that is starting already, and one that will be in full swing as  the 21st century begins.
  • E
    In the first place, the computer age will  introduce a total revolution in our notions of education, and is begin-ning to  do so now. The coming of the computer will make learning fun, and a  successfully stimulated mindwill learn quickly. It will undoubtedly turn out  that the "average" child is much more intelligent and creativethan we  generally suppose. There was a time, after all, when the ability to read and  write was confined to avery small group of "scholars" and almost all  of them would have scouted the notion that just about anyonecould learn the  intricacies of literacy. Yet with mass education general literacy came to be a  fact.
  • F
    This means that the dull, the boring, the  repetitious, the mind-stultifying work will begin to disappear fromthe job  market--is already beginning to disappear. This, of course, will introduce two  vital sets of prob-lem-is already introducing them.
4 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
_______________
  • A
    There remained, however, the  "easier" labor--the labor that required the human eyes, ears,  judgment andmind but no sweating. It nevertheless had its miseries, for it  tended to be dull, repetitious, and boring.And there is always the sour sense  of endlessly doing something unpleasant under compulsion.
  • B
    For one thing, much of human effort that is  today put into "running the world" will be unnecessary.  Withcomputers, robots and automation, a great dead of the daily grind will  appear to be running itself. This isnothing startling. It is a trend that has  been rapidly on its way ever since World War]I.
  • C
    And now we stand at the brink of a change  that will be the greatest of all, for work in its old sense will dis-appear  altogether. To most people, work has always been an effortful exercising of  mind or body--com-pelled by the bitter necessity of earning the necessities of  life--plus an occasional period of leisure in whichto rest or have fun.
  • D
    Clearly there will be a painful period of  transition, one that is starting already, and one that will be in full swing as  the 21st century begins.
  • E
    In the first place, the computer age will  introduce a total revolution in our notions of education, and is begin-ning to  do so now. The coming of the computer will make learning fun, and a  successfully stimulated mindwill learn quickly. It will undoubtedly turn out  that the "average" child is much more intelligent and creativethan we  generally suppose. There was a time, after all, when the ability to read and  write was confined to avery small group of "scholars" and almost all  of them would have scouted the notion that just about anyonecould learn the  intricacies of literacy. Yet with mass education general literacy came to be a  fact.
  • F
    This means that the dull, the boring, the  repetitious, the mind-stultifying work will begin to disappear fromthe job  market--is already beginning to disappear. This, of course, will introduce two  vital sets of prob-lem-is already introducing them.
5 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
_______________
  • A
    There remained, however, the  "easier" labor--the labor that required the human eyes, ears,  judgment andmind but no sweating. It nevertheless had its miseries, for it  tended to be dull, repetitious, and boring.And there is always the sour sense  of endlessly doing something unpleasant under compulsion.
  • B
    For one thing, much of human effort that is  today put into "running the world" will be unnecessary.  Withcomputers, robots and automation, a great dead of the daily grind will  appear to be running itself. This isnothing startling. It is a trend that has  been rapidly on its way ever since World War]I.
  • C
    And now we stand at the brink of a change  that will be the greatest of all, for work in its old sense will dis-appear  altogether. To most people, work has always been an effortful exercising of  mind or body--com-pelled by the bitter necessity of earning the necessities of  life--plus an occasional period of leisure in whichto rest or have fun.
  • D
    Clearly there will be a painful period of  transition, one that is starting already, and one that will be in full swing as  the 21st century begins.
  • E
    In the first place, the computer age will  introduce a total revolution in our notions of education, and is begin-ning to  do so now. The coming of the computer will make learning fun, and a  successfully stimulated mindwill learn quickly. It will undoubtedly turn out  that the "average" child is much more intelligent and creativethan we  generally suppose. There was a time, after all, when the ability to read and  write was confined to avery small group of "scholars" and almost all  of them would have scouted the notion that just about anyonecould learn the  intricacies of literacy. Yet with mass education general literacy came to be a  fact.
  • F
    This means that the dull, the boring, the  repetitious, the mind-stultifying work will begin to disappear fromthe job  market--is already beginning to disappear. This, of course, will introduce two  vital sets of prob-lem-is already introducing them.
5 [ 组合题 ] (10.0分) 未指定技能
A.The Imperial Palace
What strikes one first in a bird' s-eye viewof Beijing proper is a vast tract of golden roofs flashing bril-liantly in thesun with purple walls occasionally emerging amid them and a stretch ofluxuriant tree leaves flanking oneach side. That is the former Imperial Palace,popularly known as the Forbidden City, from which twenty-four em-perors of theMing and Qing Dynasties ruled China for some 500 years--from 1420 to 1911. TheMing Emperor Yong Le, who usurped the throne from his nephew and made Beijing thecapital, ordered its construction, on whichapproximately I0,000 artists and amillion workmen toiled for 14 years from 1406 to 1420. At present, the Palaceisan elaborate museum that presents the largest and most complete ensemble oftraditional architecture complex andmore than 900, 000 pieces of courttreasures in all dynasties in China.
Located in the center of Beijing, the entirepalace area, rectangular in shape and72 hectares in size, is surroun-ded bywalls ten meters high and a moat 52 meters wide. At each comer of the wallstands a watchtower with adouble-eave roof covered with yellow glazed tiles.
The main buildings, the six great halls, onefollowing the other, are set facing south along the central north-south axisfrom the Meridian Gate, the south entrance, to Shenwumen, the great gatepiercing in the north wall. Oneither side of the palace are many comparativelysmall buildings. Symmetrically in the northeastern section lie the sixEasternPalaces and in the northwestern section the six Western Palaces. The Palacearea is divided into two parts:the Outer Court and the Inner Palace. The formerconsists of the first three main hails, where the emperor receivedhis courtiersand conducted grand ceremonies, while the latter was the living quarters forthe imperial residence. Atthe rear of the Inner Palace is the Imperial Gardenwhere the emperor and his family sought recreation.
B.The Temple of Heaven
The Temple of Heaven was initially built inYongle Year 18 of the Ming Dynasty ( in 1420). Situatedin the southern part ofthe city, it covers the total area of 273 hectares. With the additions andrebuilding during theMing, Qing and other Dynasties, this grand set ofstructures look magnificent and glorious; the dignified environ-ment appearssolemn and respectful. It is the place for both Ming and Qing Dynasty' sEmperors to worship Heavenand pray for good harvest. The northern part of theTemple is circular while the southern part is square, implying"sky isround and earth is square" to better symbolize heaven and earth. The wholecompound is enclosed by twowalls, dividing the whole Temple into inner andouter areas, with the main structures enclosed in the inner area. Themostimportant constructions are the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest, the CircularMound Altar, Imperial Heaven,The Imperial Vault of Heaven, Heaven Kitchen, LongCorridor and so on, as well as the Echo Wall, the Triple-Sound Stone, theSeven-Star Stone and others of historic interest and scenic beauty. The Templeof Heaven is acomprehensive expression of the unique construction techniquesfrom Ming and Qing Dynasties; it is China' s mosttreasured ancientarchitecture; it is also the world' s largest architectural complex forworshipping heaven. In 1998,it was included in the "list of the worldheritages" by the United Nation' s Educational, Scientific and CulturalOr-ganization.
C.PotalaPalace
In 641, after marrying Princess Wencheng,Songtsen Gampo decided to build a grand palace to accom-modate her and let hisdescendants remember the event. However, the original palace was destroyed dueto a lighte-ning strike and succeeding warfare during Landama' s reign. In theseventeenth century under the reign of the FifthDalai Lama, Potala was rebuilt.The Thirteenth Dalai Lama expanded it to today' s scale. The monastery-likepal-ace, reclining against and capping Red Hill, was the religious andpolitical center of old Tibet and the winter palaceof Dalai Lamas. The palaceis more than 117 meters (384 feet) in height and 360 ( 1,180 feet) in width,occupyinga building space of 90 thonsand square meters. Potala is composed ofWhite Palace and Red Palace. The former isfor secular use while the latter isfor religious.
The White Palace consists of offices,dormitories, a Buddhist official seminary and a printing house. From theeastentrance of the palace, painted with images of Four Heaveniy Kings, a broadcorridor upwards leads to DeyangShar .courtyard, which used to be where DalaiLamas watched operas. Afoot the large and open courtyard, there usedto be aseminary dormitories. West of the courtyard is the White Palace. There arethree ladder stairs reaching in-side of it, liowever, tbe central one wasreserved for only Dalai Lamas and central government magistrates dispatched
toTibet. In the first hallway, there are huge murals describing the constructionof Potala Palace and Jokhang Templeand the procession of Princess Wenchengreaching Tibet. On the south wall, visitors will see an edict signed withtheGreat Fifth' s handprint. The White Palace mainly serves as the politicalheadquarter and Dalai Lamas' living quarters.The West Chamber of Sunshine andthe East Chamber of Sunshine lie as the roof of the White Palace. Theybelongedto the Thirteenth Dalai Lama and the Fourteenth Dalai Lama respectively.Beneath the East Chamber of Sunshine is thelargest hall in the White Palace,where Dalai Lamas ascended throne and ruled Tibet.
D.JokhangTemple
Jokhang Temple is the spiritual center ofTibet. Everyday pilgrims from every comer of Tibet trek along distance to thetemple. Some of them even progress prostrate by body length to the threshold ofthe temple. Pil-grims fuel myriad of flickering butter lamps with yak butter,or honor their deities with white scarves ( Kha-btags orHada) while murmuringsacred mantras to show their pieties to the Buddha.
It lies at the center of the old Lhasa. Builtin 647 by Songtsen Gampo and his two foreign wives, it has ahistory of morethan 1,300. It was said that Nepal Princess Tritsun decided to build a templeto house the JowoSakyamuni aged 12 brought by Chinese Princess Wencheng.Princess Wencheng reckoned according to Chinese as-trology that the templeshould be built on the pool where the Jokhang now locates. She contended thatthe pool wasa witch' s heart, so the temple should be built on the pool to getdd of evils. The pool still exists under the temple.Then goats were used as themain pack animals, as is the reason the city is called Lhasa. The constructiontook 12months. However it was originally small and had been expanded to today's scale in later dynasties. When the FifthDalai Lama took reign, large-scalereconstruction and renovation had been done. The temple is a combination ofHan,Tibetan and Nepalese architectural techniques. Visitors will see sphinx and otherweird and sacred sculptures.
根据以上资料,回答各题。
1 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
is the spiritual center of Tibet?
__________
  • A
    图中A
  • B
    图中B
  • C
    图中C
  • D
    图中D
2 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
is circular in the northern part while square in the southem part?
__________
  • A
    图中A
  • B
    图中B
  • C
    图中C
  • D
    图中D
3 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
presents the largest and most complete ensemble of traditional architecture?
__________
  • A
    图中A
  • B
    图中B
  • C
    图中C
  • D
    图中D
4 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
covers a building space of 90 thousand square meters?
__________
  • A
    图中A
  • B
    图中B
  • C
    图中C
  • D
    图中D
5 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
is the oldest one among the four in the text?
__________
  • A
    图中A
  • B
    图中B
  • C
    图中C
  • D
    图中D
6 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
can present the visitor the significance of Heaven Kitchen?
__________
  • A
    图中A
  • B
    图中B
  • C
    图中C
  • D
    图中D
7 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
is a combination of architectural styles from Han,Tibetan and Nepalese?
__________
  • A
    图中A
  • B
    图中B
  • C
    图中C
  • D
    图中D
8 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
was the religious and political center of old Tibet?
__________
  • A
    图中A
  • B
    图中B
  • C
    图中C
  • D
    图中D
9 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
is along with many comparatively small buildings on either side?
__________
  • A
    图中A
  • B
    图中B
  • C
    图中C
  • D
    图中D
10 [ 单选题 ] (1.0分) 未指定技能
presents an edict signed with the Great Fiful’S handprint?
__________
  • A
    图中A
  • B
    图中B
  • C
    图中C
  • D
    图中D
第三部分:Section Ⅳ Writing (40 minutes) (共1道题) 展开全部
1 [ 问答题 ] (25.0分) 未指定技能
It is often said that the subjects taught in schools are too academic in orientation and that it would be more use-ful for children to learn about practical matters such as home management, work and interpersonal skills. To whatextent do you agree or disagree?
You should write no less than 250 words.

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